The exact impact of the agreement is difficult to measure. Trade between Canada and the United States, which had already increased, accelerated after the signing of the agreement.  While exports accounted for about 25% of Canada`s gross domestic product (GDP) over the entire 20th century, exports have accounted for about 40% of GDP since 1990. After the year 2000, they reached almost 50%.  The agreement has failed to liberalize trade in some areas, particularly the ongoing dispute over coniferous timber. Issues such as trade in minerals, freshwater and conifer wood remain controversial. Under the leadership of President Donald J. Trump, the United States renegotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement and replaced it with an updated and balanced agreement that works much better for North America, the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which came into effect on July 1, 2020. The USMCA is a mutually beneficial benefit to workers, farmers, farmers and businesses in North America. The agreement creates more balanced and reciprocal trade that supports high-paying jobs for Americans and cultivates the North American economy. The free trade agreement was concluded in 1988 and NAFTA extended most of the provisions of the free trade agreement to Mexico.
NAFTA was negotiated by the governments of U.S. President George H.W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican Prime Minister Carlos Salinas de Gortari. An interim agreement on the pact was reached in August 1992 and signed by the three heads of state and government on 17 December. NAFTA was ratified by the national parliaments of the three countries in 1993 and came into force on January 1, 1994. The Liberal Party of Canada had traditionally supported free trade.  Free trade in natural products was a central theme in the 1911 Canadian Legislative Elections. The Conservative Party campaigned with anti-American rhetoric, and the Liberals lost the election. The issue of free trade has not returned to this level of national importance in Canada for many decades. On the basis of NAFTA, the United States, Mexico and Canada agreed to cooperate in other forums on agricultural issues, improve transparency and hold consultations on trade-related issues between countries. However, between the mid and late 1990s, the Canadian dollar fell to a record high against the U.S.
dollar. Cheaper Canadian primary products, such as wood and oil, could be purchased duty-free by the Americans, and Hollywood studios sent their crews to make many films in Canada because of the cheap Canadian dollar (see Runaway Production and Hollywood North). The removal of protective tariffs meant that market forces, such as monetary values, had a greater impact on the economies of both countries than on tariffs. During the negotiations, Canada retained the right to protect its cultural industries and sectors such as education and health. Some resources, such as water, should also be removed from the agreement. Canadians have failed to win free competition for U.S. government procurement. Canadian negotiators also emphasized the inclusion of a dispute resolution mechanism.
 The main priority of the U.S. dairy industry in these negotiations was for Canada to eliminate its program, which allows cheap dairy products to underseed U.S. dairy products in Canada and in third-country markets. As a result of the negotiations, Canada will eliminate so-called milk classes 6 and 7. In addition, Canada will apply export duties for its exports of skimmed milk powder, milk protein concentrates and infant formula in quantities above the agreed threshold, allowing U.S. producers to increase their sales abroad. U.S. President Ronald Reagan welcomed the Canadian initiative and the U.S. Congress gave the President the power to sign a free trade agreement with Canada, subject to congressional revision until October 5, 1987.